Defensive operations: Most fires don't get to this point, but when they do, firefighters fight the fire from the outside with streams from turrets and tower ladder master streams. This apartment fire likely spread out of control because severe storms and flooding prevented an adequate number of firefighters and equipment from getting to the fire early.

    Firefighting can be divided into two methods: Interior attack and outside defensive mode. When firefighter staffing is adequate, and a fire is attacked early, firefighters go for the interior attack. They may ventilate the building at the proper time and get inside with self-contained breathing apparatus to reach the seat of the fire. They may initially hit the fire from the outside with a powerful stream of water, then progress with an interior attack. Ultimately, the fire is knocked and fire loss is stopped.

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    Out of control fires are fought defensively because they are too dangerous to fight with an interior attack. They get beyond the control of an interior attack because they spread for a long time undetected, they are fanned by high winds, or they are initiated by a spectacular ignition or unusual event, such as a fuel tank explosion or plane crash, etc. Fire loss usually involves severe or total destruction of the structure.

    Without good water supplies and adequate firefighting equipment and personnel, more fires that are stopped routinely with interior attacks, would become out of control fires that are fought defensively.

    Engine is a fire apparatus vehicle with the main purpose of pumping water. Modern fire engines carry ladders, pike poles, axes and cutting equipment, halligan bars, fire extinguishers, ventilating equipment, floodlights, hose ramps, self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), and general tools. A fire engine often has a deck gun for streaming heavy water flow on a fire in defensive mode. Some fire engines are considered ALS Engines (or Advanced Life Support Engines) and are staffed by firefighter/paramedics that respond to emergency medical calls with rescue ambulances. Some engines also carry some amount of rescue tools, such as the Hurst "Jaws of Life" spreaders or cutters.


    Tower Ladder

    Squad or Rescue Squad


    Tanker or Tender

    Rescue Ambulance

    Command Vehicle

    Mobile Ventilation Unit

    Haz Mat Vehicle

    De-Con Unit

    Airport Crash Tender

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